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AN #129 - Graphical Clock Print
Graphical Clock

This application note was written by Jean-Pierre Duval from  www.bils-instruments.com ,  one of our French representatives. The program was written in French and translated.

 To show how many difficulties are easy to handle with Bascom Basic 

  

  

A graphic LCD, 240*128 

1 quartz of 32768 Hz for the timer, only one quartz the internal clock of µP are good enough for the other job 

1 Atmega32 (323) or other with timer supporting the 32Khz (Atmega16 ?) 

2 buttons, + 1 for reset  

The program 

 

  • Difficulties  
  • Graphic program
  • Angle calculation using floating point 
  • Use of arrays
  • Works on Date Time
     
  • How to do 

Our ATMEGA programmer card. very simple and the Kanda dongle (not show), µP, 4 ports, 1max232 some R and C, 2 diodes 1 led. 

  

  

  • How many I/O ?

8 for LCD data port B 

6 to drive the LCD port D 

2 for buttons port C 

2 for Xtal port C 

 

Port A will be use for analogue signals 

  

  • What we want to do 

 

A desk clock (3 hands) with full date, adjustable and with automatic setting of date following month. (not for 29th feb). 

  

  • Why a 32768 Hz xtal ? 

 

I divide this number 15 times : 

32768, 16384, 8192, 4096, 2048, 1024, 512, 256, 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1 

 Hourra ! It give me a good second 

  

  • Trigonometry and clock are not compatible? 

 

Trigonometric circle (Whaou ! it"s so far…)goes to the opposite way that a clock. The origin is located at 3 o'clock 

   

  

figure 1 

  

Sinus and Cosinus goes to -1 to +1 (see figure 1) 

We count in radian and we need second, minute, hour, in pixel. 

  

  • How and why ? 

 

This program is made for demonstrate how is easy to program in Basic-Bascom 

Decomposing it: 

  1. A header where I explain everything you need to do it (in Rem)  
  2. The compiling orders, library used…  
  3. The statement of variables and constants 
  4. The statement of sub and functions 
  5. The statement of Config 

This last point is a great news in Basic language. Let us look how to use a graphic LCD 

Config Graphlcd = 240 * 128 , Dataport = Portd , Controlport = Portb , Ce = 1 , Cd = 4 , Wr = 0 , Rd = 2 , Reset = 3 , Fs = 7 , Mode = 6 ' now you can send data to your graphic LCD as you do in Visual Basic ( I made my program in VB before translate it in Bascom !) The numbers following the name of pins graphicLCD are the name of the Port.pin ex: CE=Portb.1 Mode means the numbers of characters per line in text format. 

  

Config Clock = Soft  ' again that's all you need to use the 1second timer ! 

  

And after follow the main program: 

2 loops imbricates and 8 sub, or function or gosub (see it) 

  

  • How I resolved the difficulties
 

Graphic Lcd, well where is the difficulty ? You must use one drived by a T6963C and the size is limited to 240*64 or 240*128. 

Ex of text : Locate Y,X : LCD "coucou" 

Graph as VisualBasic® Ex : Line (X1, Y1)-(X2,Y2), color 'color means 0 clear 255 write  

Take care : Co-ordinates must be bytes or integers not single !  

 It is possible to insert Bitmap files see the statement SHOWPIC X, Y, label 

  

  • Floating point, again where are the difficulties ?

Remember to use same type of variables to received a calculation 

Remember to make only one operation at each time 

Remember to use Round, and Int statement (see the program) before send to GraphLCD 

Ex :Sub Anglerad(W As Single) ' sin and cos 

W = W * 6    '60*6=360°   

Angle_rad = Angle - W    

Angle_rad = Angle_rad * Pirad ' in Radian Pirad=3.1415926/180 

Sinangle = Sin(angle_rad)  

Cosangle = Cos(angle_rad)  

End Sub  

 

  • Use of Arrays 

 

I like use it. For a customer of mine, I did a cells counter where I play with Array(array(array(Variable))) ! I'm very proud ! I translate it in Basic Bascom, I decompose each of them and it works too !  

Well here we have 2 arrays for month and day-of-week, very useful for setting 

Remember: 

1) dim your array 

Dim jour(7) as string * 8  

A string is a variable using letters and alphanumeric characters. Here the day must be shorter or equal to 8 characters. 

Or Dim Temp(24) as integer ( or byte, long, single) for numbers 

The number between bracket is the index. 

A array regroups variables under a same name. The are called by their index 

Index must be shorter than 65535, index 0 is forbidden 

Ex : Temp per hour 

Dim temp(24) as integer ‘ les temps can be negative ! 

Dim J as byte 

Temp (1)=10 

Temp(2)=15 

Temp(3)=portA ' 

Temp(J)=20  J (index) must be lower or equal than 24 here ! 

  

  • Work on DATE and TIME 

 

When the compiler find Config Clock = Soft ; it make the internal variables _day, _month, _year, _sec, _min, _hour available. 

 So again Too Easy 

  

  • Use of interrupts

Config clock need the line Enable interrupts, you must know that. 

Take care to the End in your program , here it is better to use STOP see the help of these functions and you understand (thank you Mark !) 

 

Draw of PCB are available on my site. 

The program :



'------------------------------------------------------------
' CLOCK english.BAS
'this program is derived from megaclock.bas from (c) 2000-2003 MCS Electronics
'modified by JP Duval 03/04/03 Mon anniversaire !
'some names are in english some others are in french...
'this program is a free one, you can copy for private use but not for trade.
' no responsability can be evoqued against the author.
'------------------------------------------------------------
'First you must connect a 32.768 Hz xtal between PC6 and PC7 (TOSC1 and TOSC2)
' you must have also a good setting of fuses CKSEL (8MHz internal)
' CKSEL 3,2,1,0= 0100 (0 means fuse is programmed)
' HW stack=80, Soft Stack =64, Frame=64 but I think we can reduce all of them
' Config Clock uses and creates the internal variables:
' _day , _month, _year , _sec, _hour, _min (bytes) You can use as : _day = 1
' or in reverse : myday =_day
' we use a T6963C graphic display 240 * 128 from Densitron -17V included
' portD=data D0=DB0.....D7=DB7 port B= control see the config line
'
'-------------------------------------------------------------
$regfile = "M32def.dat" 'specific file for the µP
Mcusr = &H80 'desable the JTAG for mega323 et 32
Mcusr = &H80 ' // // //
'$baud = 9600 'Attention don't use in HW if port D is used for data
Wait 1
Enable Interrupts ' config clock uses a Timer interrup
$lib "eurotimedate.lbx" ' thanks !
' constants---------------------------------------------------------------
Const Pirad = 3.1415926 / 180 'use for angle calculation
Const Bigradius = 58 'the biggest circle
Const Radius = 54 'the circle under the biggest use for Railway
Const Smallradius = 10 ' The circle uses for hand
Const Houradius = 40 ' The invisible circle of hours
Const Minuteradius = 50 ' the invisible circle of minutes
Const Littleradius = 3 'the tiny circle around the second hand
Const Placeradius = 44 'place of center of tiny circle on the second hand
Const Seconderadius = 52 ' the invisible circle of seconds
Const Angle = 90 ' 90° ŕ mid time
Const Black = 255 ' to see the draw
Const Centrex = 120 'center X
Const Centrey = 66 'center Y
' variables -------------------------------------------------------------
' Some variables are used for different jobs
' for ex : Xseconde, Yseconde, X, Y, Ax, Ay,J
Dim Xseconde As Single , Yseconde As Single
Dim Startx As Single , Starty As Single , Endy As Single , Endx As Single
Dim Seconde As Integer , Minute As Integer , Heure As Integer
Dim Jour(7) As String * 9 , Mois(12) As String * 10 , Flagj As Bit , Color As Byte
Dim Lejour As String * 9 , Lemois As String * 10 , Indexjour As Byte , Indexmois As Byte
Dim Cosangle As Single , Sinangle As Single , Angle_rad As Single
Dim Angleplus As Single , Angleheure As Single , W As Single
Dim X As Byte , Y As Byte , Ax As Byte , Ay As Byte , J As Byte , K As Integer
' sub and functions-------------------------------------------------------
Declare Sub Anglerad(w As Single)
Declare Sub Jobseconde(color As Byte , Seconde As Integer)
Declare Sub Jobminute(color As Byte , Minute As Integer)
Declare Sub Jobheure(seconde As Integer , Angleplus As Single)
' config ----------------------------------------------------------------
' Port A is reserved for a futur analogic use
' GraphicLCD data : D control : B
' PortC6 and PortC7 are use for the xtal 32KHz
' PortC0 and PortC1 are uses for the buttons
' PC0 is the ajustement button, PC1 is the ENTER they are used like this:
'  __
'---VCC----R10K|----o o-------ground
' |_______________________portC0 or PortC1
Config Pinc.0 = Input
Config Pinc.1 = Input
Config Graphlcd = 240 * 128 , Dataport = Portd , Controlport = Portb , Ce = 1 , Cd = 4 , Wr = 0 , Rd = 2 , Reset = 3 , Fs = 7 , Mode = 6
Config Date = Dmy , Separator = / ' ANSI-Format
Config Clock = Soft ' , Gosub = Sectic (non use here)
'---------------the main--------------------------------------------------
'initialising
Indexjour
= 1 'index of the day
Indexmois
= 1 'index of the month
Seconde
= _sec
Cls
Gosub Tableau ' tableau of the day and month (we can use data too)
Cursor On , Blink
Gosub Reglage ' adjustement of parameters
Cls
Gosub Railway ' railway with sleepers !
Cursor Off , Noblink
Do
 Heure
= _hour
 
Gosub Ecritla_date ' write the date
 
Do
 
If Pinc.0 = 0 Or Pinc.1 = 0 Then
 
Cursor On , Blink
 
Gosub Reglage
 
Cls
 
Gosub Railway
 
Gosub Ecritla_date
 
Cursor Off , Noblink
 
End If
 
If Seconde <> _sec Then
 Seconde
= _sec
 
If Seconde = 0 Then
 
Cls
 
Gosub Railway
 
Gosub Ecritla_date
 
End If
 Minute
= _min
 
If Heure <> _hour Then Exit Do
 Color
= 0 'deletting
 
Call Jobseconde(color , Seconde)
 
Call Jobminute(color , Minute)
 
Call Jobheure(seconde , Angleplus)
 Color
= 255 'writing
 
Call Jobseconde(color , Seconde)
 
Call Jobminute(color , Minute)
 
Call Jobheure(seconde , Angleplus)
 
End If
 
Loop
 Flagj
= 1 ' to check and to rewrite date
 Angleplus
= 0
Loop
Stop
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' sub and functions-----------------------------------------
Sub Anglerad(w As Single) ' calculation of sin and cos not for hours of railway
W
= W * 6 '
Angle_rad
= Angle - W
Angle_rad
= Angle_rad * Pirad
Sinangle
= Sin(angle_rad) : Cosangle = Cos(angle_rad)
End Sub
'-----the seconds---------------------------------------------------
Sub Jobseconde(color , Seconde)
If Color = 0 Then 'deletting of previous
W
= Seconde - 1
Else
W
= Seconde
End If
Call Anglerad(w)
W
= Seconderadius * Cosangle ' X of hand
Xseconde
= Centrex + W
W
= Seconderadius * Sinangle ' Y of the hand
Yseconde
= Centrey - W
Xseconde
= Round(xseconde) : Yseconde = Round(yseconde)
X
= Int(xseconde) : Y = Int(yseconde)
Line(centrex , Centrey) -(x , Y) , Color 'the hand
'where is the tiny circle
W
= Placeradius * Cosangle
Startx
= Centrex + W '  petit cercle
W
= Placeradius * Sinangle
Starty
= Centrey - W ' petit cercle
Startx
= Round(startx) : Starty = Round(starty)
 X
= Int(startx) : Y = Int(starty)
Circle(x , Y) , Littleradius , Color 'the tiny circle
Circle(centrex , Centrey) , Smallradius , Black 'the circle of 10
End Sub
'--------------- minutes-------------------------------------
Sub Jobminute(color , Minute)
If Color = 255 Then
 W
= Minute
Elseif Color = 0 And _sec = 0 Then
 W
= Minute - 1 'deletting of previous
 
Goto Suite
End If
 Suite
:
 
Call Anglerad(w)
 W
= Minuteradius * Cosangle ' X of hand
 Xseconde
= Centrex + W
 W
= Minuteradius * Sinangle ' Y of hand
 Yseconde
= Centrey - W
 Xseconde
= Round(xseconde) : Yseconde = Round(yseconde)
 X
= Int(xseconde) : Y = Int(yseconde)
 
Line(centrex , Centrey) -(x , Y) , Color 'main hand
 W
= Smallradius * Sinangle
 Endx
= Centrex + W
 W
= Smallradius * Cosangle
 Endy
= Centrey + W
 Endx
= Round(endx) : Endy = Round(endy)
 Ax
= Int(endx) : Ay = Int(endy)
 
Line(centrex , Centrey) -(ax , Ay) , Color 'base of triangle
 
Line(x , Y) -(ax , Ay) , Color 'hypotenuse
End Sub
'---------------- hours---------------------------------------------
Sub Jobheure(seconde , Angleplus )
 Angleheure
= Heure * 30
 
If Seconde = 0 And Color = 0 Then 'delete of previous
 Color
= 0
 
Else
 Color
= 255
 
End If
 
If Seconde = 0 And Color = 255 Then
 Angleplus
= Angleplus + 0.5
 
End If
 Angleheure
= Angleheure + Angleplus
 Angle_rad
= Angle - Angleheure
 Angle_rad
= Angle_rad * Pirad
 Sinangle
= Sin(angle_rad) : Cosangle = Cos(angle_rad)
 W
= Houradius * Cosangle ' X of hand
 Xseconde
= Centrex + W
 W
= Houradius * Sinangle ' Y of hand
 Yseconde
= Centrey - W
 Xseconde
= Round(xseconde) : Yseconde = Round(yseconde)
 X
= Int(xseconde) : Y = Int(yseconde)
 
Line(centrex , Centrey) -(x , Y) , Color 'main side of hand

 W
= Smallradius * Sinangle
 Xseconde
= Centrex - W
 W
= Smallradius * Cosangle
 Yseconde
= Centrey - W
 Xseconde
= Round(xseconde) : Yseconde = Round(yseconde)
 Ax
= Int(xseconde) : Ay = Int(yseconde)
 
Line(centrex , Centrey) -(ax , Ay) , Color ' base of triangle
 
Line(x , Y) -(ax , Ay) , Color 'hypotenuse
End Sub

'----the gosub ---------------------------------------
Ecritla_date
:
Locate 1 , 1 : Lcd Spc(39)
If _hour = 0 And Flagj = 1 Then 'flagj to do only one time
 Indexjour
= Indexjour + 1
 
If Indexjour = 8 Then
 Indexjour
= 1
 
End If
 Lejour
= Jour(indexjour)
 
If _day = 1 And Indexmois = 1 Then
 Lemois
= Mois(2)
 Indexmois
= 2
 
Elseif _day = 29 And Indexmois = 2 Then
 _day
= 1
 Lemois
= Mois(3)
 Indexmois
= 3
 
Elseif _day = 1 And Indexmois = 3 Then
 Lemois
= Mois(4)
 Indexmois
= 4
 
Elseif _day = 1 And Indexmois = 5 Then
 Lemois
= Mois(6)
 Indexmois
= 6
 
Elseif _day = 1 And Indexmois = 7 Then
 Lemois
= Mois(8)
 Indexmois
= 8
 
Elseif _day = 1 And Indexmois = 8 Then
 Lemois
= Mois(9)
 Indexmois
= 9
 
Elseif _day = 1 And Indexmois = 10 Then
 Lemois
= Mois(11)
 Indexmois
= 11
 
Elseif _day = 1 And Indexmois = 12 Then
 Lemois
= Mois(1)
 Indexmois
= 1
 
Elseif _day = 31 And Indexmois = 4 Then
 _day
= 1
 Lemois
= Mois(5)
 Indexmois
= 5
 
Elseif _day = 31 And Indexmois = 6 Then
 _day
= 1
 Lemois
= Mois(7)
 Indexmois
= 7
 
Elseif _day = 31 And Indexmois = 9 Then
 _day
= 1
 Lemois
= Mois(10)
 Indexmois
= 10
 
Elseif _day = 31 And Indexmois = 11 Then
 _day
= 1
 Lemois
= Mois(12)
 Indexmois
= 12
 
End If
End If
Flagj
= 0
Lejour
= Jour(indexjour)
Lemois
= Mois(indexmois)
Lejour
= Rtrim(lejour)
Lejour
= Lejour + " "
Lemois
= " " + Lemois
Lemois
= Rtrim(lemois)
X
= Len(lejour)
Y
= Len(lemois)
X
= X + Y : X = X + 2 : X = X / 2 'to put the date in the center
X
= 20 - X '
 
Locate 1 , X : Lcd Lejour : Lcd _day : Lcd Lemois
Flagj
= 0
Return
'---------------------------------------------------------------
Reglage
:
Encore
:
' Day------------------------
Locate 1 , 29 : Lcd " "
Locate 1 , 29 : Lcd " SETTING "
Locate 2 , 29 : Lcd " Day "
Waitms 400
Do
 
Locate 3 , 30 : Lcd Jour(indexjour)
If Pinc.0 = 0 Then
 Indexjour
= Indexjour + 1
 
Waitms 200
End If
If Indexjour = 8 Then
 Indexjour
= 1
 
Locate 3 , 30 : Lcd Jour(indexjour)

End If
Loop Until Pinc.1 = 0
Lejour
= Jour(indexjour)
 
Waitms 300
'- Month------------------------
Locate 4 , 30 : Lcd " Month "
Do
Locate 5 , 30 : Lcd Mois(indexmois)
If Pinc.0 = 0 Then
 Indexmois
= Indexmois + 1
 
Waitms 200
End If
If Indexmois = 13 Then
 Indexmois
= 1
 
Locate 5 , 30 : Lcd Mois(indexmois)
End If
Loop Until Pinc.1 = 0
Lemois
= Mois(indexmois)
 
Waitms 300
'-Day of month--------------------
J
= 1
Locate 6 , 39 : Lcd "Day of Mth"
Do
 
Locate 7 , 33 : Lcd J
 
If Pinc.0 = 0 Then
 J
= J + 1
 
Waitms 200
 
End If
 
If J = 32 Then
 
Locate 7 , 33 : Lcd "1 "
 J
= 1
End If
Loop Until Pinc.1 = 0
_day
= J
 
Waitms 300
'- Hours---------------------------
J
= 0
Locate 8 , 30 : Lcd " Hours"
Do
 
Locate 9 , 33 : Lcd J
 
If Pinc.0 = 0 Then
 J
= J + 1
 
Waitms 200
 
End If
 
If J = 24 Then
 
Locate 9 , 33 : Lcd "0 "
 J
= 0
End If
Loop Until Pinc.1 = 0
_hour
= J
 
Waitms 300
'- Minutes-------------------------
J
= 0
Locate 10 , 30 : Lcd "Minutes"
Do
 
Locate 11 , 33 : Lcd J
 
If Pinc.0 = 0 Then
 J
= J + 1
 
Waitms 200
 
End If
If J = 60 Then
 
Locate 11 , 33 : Lcd " "
 J
= 0
End If
Loop Until Pinc.1 = 0
_min
= J : Angleplus = J : Angleplus = Angleplus * 0.5
 
Waitms 500
' Ok-----------------------------
Do

 
Locate 12 , 30 : Lcd "OK=Right"
 
Locate 13 , 30 : Lcd "Again=L"
 
If Pinc.0 = 0 Then
 
Cls
 
Goto Encore
 
Waitms 200
 
End If
 
Waitms 200
Loop Until Pinc.1 = 0
Cursor Off , Noblink
Cls
Return
'-----------------------------------------------

Tableau
:
Jour
(1) = "MONDAY "
Jour
(2) = "TUESDAY "
Jour
(3) = "WEDNESDAY"
Jour
(4) = "THURSDAY "
Jour
(5) = "FRIDAY "
Jour
(6) = "SATURDAY "
Jour
(7) = "SUNDAY "
'-----------------------
Mois
(1) = "JANUARY "
Mois
(2) = "FEBRUARY "
Mois
(3) = "MARCH "
Mois
(4) = "APRIL "
Mois
(5) = "MAY "
Mois
(6) = "JUNE "
Mois
(7) = "JULY "
Mois
(8) = "AUGUST "
Mois
(9) = "SEPTEMBER"
Mois
(10) = "OCTOBER "
Mois
(11) = "NOVEMBER "
Mois
(12) = "DECEMBER "
Return
'-------------------------------------------
Railway
: 'Draw 2 circles and sleepers
Cursor Off , No Blink
Circle(centrex , Centrey) , Bigradius , Black
Circle(centrex , Centrey) , Radius , Black
Waitms 200
Circle(centrex , Centrey) , Bigradius , Black
Circle(centrex , Centrey) , Radius , Black
For K = 0 To 360 Step 30
 Angle_rad
= Angle - K : Angle_rad = Angle_rad * Pirad
 Sinangle
= Sin(angle_rad) : Cosangle = Cos(angle_rad)
 W
= Radius * Cosangle
 Startx
= Centrex + W
  W
= Radius * Sinangle
 Starty
= Centrey - W
 W
= Bigradius * Cosangle
 Endx
= Centrex + W
 W
= Bigradius * Sinangle
 Endy
= Centrey - W
 Startx
= Round(startx) : Starty = Round(starty)
 X
= Int(startx) : Y = Int(starty)
 Endx
= Round(endx) : Endy = Round(endy)
 Ax
= Int(endx) : Ay = Int(endy)
 
Line(x , Y) -(ax , Ay) , Black 'sleppers
Next
 K
= 0
Return

Download the program source code