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AN #196 - VdBFmeter Print
3rd place in competition 2011 bascom.at.ua

A voltage meter, level and frequency.

 

In communication technology, and in amateur radio practice, it is necessary to measure signal not only to the voltage, but by the level. Signal levels are measured in logarithmic units – db, (Db=20Lg(Uout./Uin.) for voltage and current, and =10 Lg(Uout./Uin.) for power.)  For measurements of absolute levels are used initial values of P= 1 mW, U=775mV, I=129 mA to the load R=600 Ohms.

The proposed device allows you to measure high-frequency signals ac with the conclusion of the indicator values of voltage V., the level of the dB. and frequency in Hz.

Voltage measuring range: 0-50 V, the accuracy in the range of 0-5V equal to (5000/1024) is approximately 5 mV. In the range of 5-50 V the accuracy of approximately 50 mV..

The maximum measured frequency depends on the type of in-applied diodes head. When using the measuring head, described in the journal Radio №1, 2008."RF voltmeter on the diode Schottky", the author conducted measurements at frequencies up to 30 Mhz.

The measured voltage value is recounted program in levels, according to the formula Db=20Lg(0,775V/Uin.) and is displayed on the indicator after the value of the voltage.

Frequency measurement is made with an accuracy of 1 Hz, the maximum possible frequency measured theoretically limited by the frequency quartz resonator, and may not exceed a half of its value. When using the quartz 20 MHz, it is possible measurement of frequency up to 10 MHz.

The device is assembled on the micro controller ATmega48, has 4 Kb program memory and so-the color of frequency up to 20 MHz.

The indicator is a two-line indicator of the company Winstar with 16 characters in each line Win1602.

Device for frequency meter and measuring head taken from those described in the technical literature sources. Examples are in the folder "Schema/Advanced".

 

The principle of the device.

 

The input of the ADC(0), (PortC0, pin 23), is a constant voltage from RF  head. To the input of the ADC is connected protective diodes and a voltage divider. When input voltage is less than 5V, divider passport-chan, in excess of 5V he turned on (1:10) contact relay, as a result of the input voltage on the ADC does not exceed 5 V, and the measured value is multiplied by 10.

The reference voltage of the ADC is equal to the voltage supply the controller (5V), the inputs of the AVcc, AREF on through the smoothing filter from the filter choke 100 mkH and 0.1 mkF capacitors.

The input timer T0, (PortD4, pin 6), the signal comes from a generator frequency counter, imagine-a-a, rectangular pulses of scale, close to 5V. (The same signal is the input of the capture timer T1, in this scheme is not used, but reserved for the prospects of frequency measurement with just the right speed to hundredths of Hertz. While Proteus’ version is not giving the desired results;and the iron did not intend to. For the practice of accuracy in 1 Hz enough, but for the possibility to bring to the desired result circuit keep-lena.)

Analog and digital ground are separated, to ensure greater accuracy of the ADC, and are connected together in one point of the resistor R9, which has a resistance 0 Ohm (shorted).



 

Description of the program.

The program is written in the demo-version of Bascom 2.0.5.0.

First set the type used by the microcontroller, the frequency quartz resonator, used indie lamp and define the connection. Then configure the ADC. Next, configure the timers. 16-bit T1 works as a timer and gives interrupt 1 second, the interval measurement of frequency. 8-bit T0 is included as a counter and is used for counting the number of pulses on pin6 (T0) for 1 sec. As an 8-bit counter can only count up to 256, with overflow he generating-the interrupt and increases by 1 the contents of the 4-byte variable TimHoh. As a result of the frequency can be measured to 4Byte’s  value of 2^32=4294967296 Hz,that at 20mhz quartz more than enough.

Configure the PortD1 as an output, and his name Delitel, it will be used to power divider 1:10, with over-voltage at the ADC input 5V.

Next we define the variables: Timecounter As Byte to record the contents of the counter T0, Timhoh As Long to increase the range of accounts, F As Long to store the value of the frequency in Hertz, Flagt1 As Bit -flag, changes its value to the opposite by interruption of the T1, is used for determination of the moments of the beginning and the end of the accounts of the pulse frequency.

W As Word- of-character variable to store the value 10 bit ADC, K As Byte =1 or 10, depending off voltage divider or included. V&A – 4 Byte’s variables with floating-point values of a and voltage level of the signal being measured.

We allow to interrupt the overflow timers T0 and T1, the total resolution of the interrupt while not allow, they will interfere with the calculations.

Display splash on the indicator, stop Timers, start the ADC is set to "0" output on of the divisor and the timer T1, the value of THE k coefficient equal to do 1.

Next is the main loop of the program. In it:

-read the value of the ADC, if the ADC =1023 (overflowing), the set K=10, turn on the divider to-voltage, and again read the value of the ADC. If the ADC is less than 101 ( approximately 5V, when enabled by the attenuator, or 0,5V for disabled), then the set of K=1 and turning off the voltage divider.

-Set the cursor to the first position, a top of the line.

-We expect the voltage and level. When a voltage of less than 5V output in the indicator value with three digits after the decimal point, at a voltage of more than 5V with two digits after the decimal point. Followed by a space, display level set to two decimal points. In this case, even though the variables Single -unsigned, negative values are displayed on the indicator with the sign "minus", no additional intervention in its conclusion no need.

-We make a pause of 100ms.

Start the measurement frequency:

-Allow the total resolution of the interrupt.

-Record in Таймер1 value for 1 sec., zero T0, also resets variables Timhoh and F.

-Run Тimer1.

-Wait for the installer flag Flagt1, which is set to "1" by interruption of T1.

"As soon as Flagt1=1, run the timer T0, which will count the pulses at the entrance 6, and look forward to reset the flag state of the Flagt1, which will be cleared when the following interruption of T1, after 1 second.

"As soon as Flagt1=0, we stop the timer, the value of Тimer0 record in the variable Timecounter. The Variable F is assigned a value that is stored in the Timhoh (number of overflows T0). Then shifted left by 8 positions, and add to it the value of the variable Timecounter, in which is stored the value of the Timer T0. Thus we get the value of the frequency of dimension up to 4 bytes.

- Prohibit shared interrupts.

-Clean indicator, translate the cursor to the first position of the bottom-line and print the value of the frequency.

-Wait for the 100 ms, and we go back to the beginning of the main loop.

In the timer interrupt T1 "T1over:" is reset timer, change the flag Flagt1 and exit from the interruption.

In the timer interrupt T0 "T0over:" increases by 1 the contents of the variable Timhoh and pro-usual output from the interruption. Reboot T0 is not done, because after the overflow he begins to account from scratch.

 

Summary.

The device was developed for measuring the level of equipment located at remote sites. In stationary conditions, dimensions of measuring devices, do not have such an important value. Has small dimensions and weight, reflects the main parameters of the controlled signal. Convenient for finding damage, though accuracy is not very high, for the overwhelming majority of works it is quite enough. The main advantage of the instrument, the universality and simplicity. Debugged in Proteus v7.7sp2. Proteus’ files are attached. Schemes implemented in the program DipTrace.




Source code:

'Measure volts, decibels, hertz

'


$regfile = "m48def.dat"
$crystal = 20000000


Config Lcd = 16 * 2
Config Lcdpin = Pin , Db4 = Portb., Db5 = Portb., Db6 = Portb., Db7 = Portb., E = Portb., Rs = Portc.5

Config Adc = Single , Prescaler = Auto , Reference = Avcc   'ADC configuration

Config Timer1 = Timer , Prescale = 1024                     ' configuration Timer1
Const T1tim = &HB3B5                                        ' 1 sec at 20MHz
Timer1 = T1tim
On Timer1 T1over

Config Timer0 = Counter , Prescale = 1 , Edge = Rising      'configuration Timer0
On Timer0 T0over

Config Portd.= Output
Delitel Alias Portd.1                                       'inclusion of a voltage divider

Dim Timecounter As Byte
Dim Timhoh As Long
Dim F As Long
Dim Flagt1 As Bit

Dim W As Word 'two bytes of the value of the DAC
Dim K As Byte 'ratio of the voltage divider
Dim V As Single
Dim A As Single

Enable Ovf1
Enable Ovf0

'--------------will display-------------------------------
Wait 1                                                      'delay of 1 second
Cursor Off 'disable the display of the cursor on the LCD
Cls 'cleaning the display
Locate 1 , 4                                                'cursor position
Lcd "Volt-dB-Hz" 'cursor position
Locate 2 , 5                                                ' cursor position
Lcd "meter" 'cursor position
Wait 2                                                      'delay of 2 second
'-------------------------------------------------------------
Stop Timer0
Stop Timer1

Start Adc 'start the analog-digital conversion

Reset Delitel
= 1
Flagt1 = 0

'the main program loop

Do

 W = Getadc(0) 'reading the result with pin 0 port A

If W = 1023 Then
= 10
Set Delitel
= Getadc(0)
End If
If W < 101 Then
= 1
Reset Delitel
= Getadc(0)
End If

 Locate 1 , 1                                              ' cursor position
  V = W * 5                                                 ' multiplied by the reference voltage
  V = V * K
  V = V / 1023

  A = V / 0.775
  A = Log10(a)
  A = A * 20

If K = 1 Then
 Lcd Fusing(, "#.###") ; "V  " 'output the result of conversion on the LCD (three decimal places)
 Else
 Lcd Fusing(, "#.##") ; "V  " 'output the result of conversion on the LCD (two decimal places)
End If
 Lcd Fusing(, "#.#") ; "dB" 'output the result of conversion on the LCD (one decimal place)
 Waitms 100

Enable Interrupts

Timer1 = T1tim
Timer0 = 0
Timhoh = 0
= 0
Start Timer1

Bitwait Flagt1 , Set 'wait for interrupt T1
Start Timer0

Bitwait Flagt1 , Reset 'wait for interrupt T1
Stop Timer0
Stop Timer1
Timecounter = Timer0
= Timhoh
Shift F , Left , 8
= F + Timecounter

Disable Interrupts

Cls
Locate 2 , 1                                                ' cursor position
Lcd F ; " Hz" 'output the result of conversion on LCD

 Waitms 100                                                ' 0.1 second delay

 Loop



' interrupt Handling

T1over:
Timer1 = T1tim
Toggle Flagt1
Return

T0over:
Incr Timhoh
Return

End