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AN #39 - Digital Thermometer-Cum controller with DS1821 Print
by K.S.Sankar - Mostek Electronics ( www.mostek.biz )
Originaly published in ELECTRONICS FOR YOU magazine ( INDIA - W W W . E F Y M A G . C O M )


This standalone digital thermometer controls the temperature of a device according to its requirement. It also displays the temperature on four 7-segment displays in the range of –55 to +125°C. At the heart of the circuit is the microcontroller AT89S8252, which controls all its functions. IC DS1821 is used as temperature sensor. IC DS1821 Dallas Semiconductor’s IC DS1821 is one-degree precision temperature sensor in a 3-pin pack like a transistor with single-wire communication protocol. It can operate as a standalone thermostat with user-programmable trip-points (set-point) or as an 8-bit temperature sensor with a single-wire digital interface. The open-drain DQ pin functions as the output for thermostat operation and as the data input/output (I/O) pin for single-wire communications. The single-wire interface lets user access the nonvolatile memory (EEPROM) thermostat trip-point registers (TH and TL), status/configuration register and temperature register.
When configured as standalone thermostat, temperature conversions start immediately at power-on. In this mode, the DQ pin becomes active when the temperature of IC DS1821 exceeds the limit programmed into the TH register, and remains active until the temperature drops below the limit programmed into the TL register.
The DS1821 uses Dallas’ exclusive single-wire bus protocol that implements bus communication with one control signal.

Temperature sensor functionality


The core functionality of IC DS1821 is its proprietary direct-to-digital temperature sensing, which provides 8-bit (1°C increment) centigrade temperature readings over the range of –55°C to +125°C. This circuit measures the temperature by counting the number of clock cycles generated by an oscillator with a low temperature coefficient during a gate period determined by a high-temperature-coefficient oscillator. The low-temperature-coefficient counter is preset with a base count that corresponds to –55°C. If the counter reaches ‘0’ before the gate period is over, the temperature register, which is preset to –55°C, is incremented by one degree, and the counter is again preset with a starting value determined by the internal slope accumulator circuitry of DS1821. The preset counter value is unique for every temperature increment and compensates for the non-linear behaviour of the oscillators over temperature.
At this time, the counter is clocked again until it reaches ‘0.’ If the gate period is not over when the counter reaches ‘0,’ the temperature register is incremented again. This process of presetting the counter, counting down to ‘0,’ and incrementing the temperature register is repeated until the counter takes less time to reach ‘0’ than the duration of the gate period of the hightemperature-coefficient oscillator. When this iterative process is complete,the value in the temperature register will indicate the centigrade temperature of the device.

Operating modes

The DS1821 has two operating modes: single-wire mode and thermostat mode.
The power-on operatingmode is determined by the user-programmable T/R¯ bit in the status/configuration register: if T/R¯ = 0 the device works in single-wire mode, and if T/R¯ = 1 the device works in thermostat mode. The T/R¯ bit is stored in the non-volatile memory (EEPROM), so it will retain its value when the device is powered down. Single-wire mode. The DS1821 is supplied by the manufacturer in single-wire mode (T/R¯=0). In this mode, the DQ pin of the DS1821 is configured as a singlewire port for communication with a microprocessor using the protocols described in the single-wire bus system section of the datasheet. These communications can include reading and writing the high and low thermostat trip-point registers (TH and TL) and the configuration register, and reading the temperature, counter and slope accumulator registers. Also in this mode, the control unit can initiate and stop temperature measurements as described in the operation-measuring temperature section of the datasheet.
The TH and TL registers and certain bits (THF, TLF, T/R¯, POL and 1SHOT) in the status/configuration register
are stored in the nonvolatile EEPROM memory, so these will retain data when the device is powered down.
This allows these registers to be preprogrammed when the DS1821 is to be used as a standalone thermostat. Writing to these nonvolatile registers can take up to 10 ms. To avoid data corruption, no write action to the non-volatile memory should be initiated while a write to the non-volatile memory is in progress. Non-volatile write status can be monitored by reading the NVB bit in the status/configuration register:
If NVB=1, a write to EEPROM memory is in progress.
If NVB=0, the non-volatile memory is in idle state.

Circuit description


Fig. 1 shows the circuit of the temperature controller using Dallas DS1821. Microcontroller AT89S8252 is interfaced to DS1821 temperature sensor, three 7-segment displays and relay RL1. Port P1 of IC1 is used to output the data on the segment display. Ports P1.0 through P1.3 and ports P1.4 through P1.7 are connected to IC3 and IC4, respectively. ICs CD4511 (IC3 and IC4) receive the BCD data and provide the compatible code for 7-segment displays DIS2 and DIS3. Port pins P3.4 and P3.5 are used for ‘b,’ ‘c’ and ‘g’ segments of DIS4
through buffers N1, N2 and N3, respectively. Segments ‘b’ and ‘c’ become active when temperature goes above 99°C. Segment ‘g’ becomes active when temperature goes below 0°C. This indicates ‘–’ sign for negative temperature. DIS1 is used in reverse direction for indication of °C. Segments ‘a,’ ‘b,’ ‘g’ and ‘dp’ (decimal point) are made permanently high with resistors R19 through R22 to indicate °C. Port pins P3.1 through P3.3 of IC1 are connected to S2, S3, and S4 switches for Up, Down and Display, respectively.
These pins are pulled high through a 10-kilo-ohm resistor. Switches S1 through S3 are used for setting/changing the temperature. When the set temperature is exceeded, the relay connected to port 3.7 through a transistor is latched on. Switch S1 is used as a reset switch. Power-on reset is achieved by capacitor C3 and resistor R4. Port pin P3.0 of IC1 receives the data from temperature sensor DS1821.
Pin 17 (P3.7) of IC1 is connected to the base of transistor T1 through buffer N4. The signal from port pin P3.7
drives relay RL1. Diode D1 is used as a free-wheeling diode and LED2 is used for relay-on indication. The device is connected through contacts of RL1. Resistors R5 through R22 limit the current through the 7-segment display. A 12MHz crystal is used for microcontroller clock. Fig. 2 shows the circuit of power supply. The AC mains is stepped down by transformer X1 to deliver a secondary output of 7.5V at 300 mA. The transformer output is rectified by a full-wave bridge rectifier comprising diodes D2 through D5, filtered by capacitor C1 and regulated by IC6. Capacitor C2 bypasses any ripple present in the regulated output. Regulated 5V is used for circuit operation and unregulated 6V is used for relay.
An actual-size, single-side PCB for temperature controller (Fig. 1) including its power supply (Fig. 2) is shown in Fig. 3 and its component layout in Fig. 4.

The software


The software for the temperature controller is compiled using Bascom51version. The demo version of Bascom-8051 is available on website ‘www.mcselec.com’.
First, define the crystal speed and include the header file for microcontroller. Initialise all ports to ‘0.’ Timer-0 is used as an internal counter and increments a variable every second. This is used here for timing delays. Pin P3.0 of the microcontroller is configured for single-wire communication. Normal state of DQ pin (single-wire bus) of DS1821 is high.Through DQ, the device gets its power and performs the tasks. When the microcontroller watches something happen with single-wire bus, it issues a reset command. Then DQ goes low for some time. This resets the device and it sends a presence pulse and then listens to the microcontroller. All communication on the single-wire bus is initiatised by the microcontroller, and issued by time slots of active-low on a normally-high DQ line, issued by the device, which is sending at the moment. The internal capacitor of the device meets its power needs during the low time.
Declare the variables as bits, bytes and words. Define the various port pins and where they are connected. Set the maximum temperature to ‘40’ as default. Subroutines ‘dispset’ and ‘disptemp’ are used for display preset and real temperature, respectively. The source program is well commented for easy understanding.


Fig.1 : Circuit of thermomether controller


Fig.2 : Power supply


Fig.3 : Single-side PCB layout for digital thermometer-cum-controller

Fig.4 : Component layout for the PCB in Fig. 3

Program listing:


' tempr.bas 22-8-06
' ds-1821 chip with 12 mhz xtal
' by K.S.Sankar www.mostek.biz for EFY Magazine
' written in embedded basis- Bascom-51
' Language downloaded from http://Www.mcselec.com Holland
' p3.0 =data wire
' 1 wire communication with Dallas temperature sensor Ds1821
' small PR35 Package, 3 pin , see data sheet for more Details
' Temperatures are in degres when >-1 , <125
' for temperature <0 , 256 - tempdegree will give
' from -55 to -1
' count range
' - - - - - - - - - - -0+++++++++++++
' -55 -54 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 ...125
'201 202 253 254 255 0 1 2 3 ...125
' port p1-yellow
' = two 7seg display thru two 4511 bcd-7decoder ics
' port-p3 blue
' p3.0= 1 wire interface
' p3.1= increase set value
' p3.2= decrease set value
' p3.3= display set value
' p3.4= '1' for hundreds
' p3.5= '-' minus segment for negative
' p3.7= relay out
'define xtal speed
$crystal = 12000000

$regfile = "89s8252.dat"
'select chip used

P1 = 0
P0 = 0
P2 = 0
P3 = 0
'all ports off
P3 = &B01001110
' input port high for switches
' declare function used
Declare Sub Fn7seg(_i As Byte)
Dim _i As Byte
Config Timer0 = Timer , Gate = Internal , Mode = 2
'Timer0 use timer 0
'Gate = Internal no external interrupt
'Mode = 2 8 bit auto reload
' set t0 internal interrupt 4000 times a sec with 12mhz
Xtal
On Timer0 Timer_0_overflow_int
Load Timer0 , 250
Priority Set Timer0
Enable Interrupts
Enable Timer0
' do not start timer0 here
Config 1wire = P3.0
'use P3.0 for 1 wire communication
Dim Sec_count As Byte
Dim Clock_word As Word
Dim I As Byte , J As Byte
Dim Tempdegree As Byte , Stat_buf As Byte ,
Disp_temp
As Byte
Dim Settemp As Byte , Set_disp_temp As Byte
Dim Set_mode As Bit
Dim Ans As Byte
Dim Comp_temp As Byte , Comp_set As Byte
Relay_out
Alias P3.7
Sw_set_up
Alias P3.1
Sw_set_down
Alias P3.2
Sw_set_disp
Alias P3.3
Sw_in_port
Alias P3
Display_port
Alias P1
' set default max temperature for relay to activate
Settemp = 40
Set_mode = 0
Begin:
1wreset
1wwrite &H0C
' write status
1wwrite &B01000010
' continue convertion
1wreset
1wwrite &HEE
' start conversion
1wreset
1wwrite &HAA
' get temperature
Tempdegree = 1wread()
1wreset
Gosub Disptemp
'-----------------
Rem check if set keys pressed
' if pressed stay in set loop for 3 seconds
' after inactivity and display will be in flicker mode
Ans = &B01001110
And Sw_in_port
If Ans <> &B01001110 Then
 
' some input key pressed
 
Start Timer0
 Sec_count = 0
 Set_mode = 1
Begin2:
 
While 1 = 1
 
If Sec_count >= 3 Then
 Set_mode = 0
 
Exit While
 
End If
 
If Sw_set_up = 0 Then
 Sec_count = 0
 Settemp = Settemp + 1
 
' - - - - - - - - - - -0+++++++++++++
 
' -55 -54 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 ...125
 
'201 202 253 254 255 0 1 2 3 ...125
' plus range
 
If Settemp <= 200 Then
 
If Settemp >= 125 Then
 Settemp = 125
 
' limit + reached
 
End If
 
End If
End If
'-----------------
If Sw_set_down = 0 Then
 Sec_count = 0
 Settemp = Settemp - 1
 
' - - - - - - - - - - -0+++++++++++++
 
' -55 -54 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 ...125
 
'201 202 253 254 255 0 1 2 3 ...125
 
If Settemp < 201 Then
 
If Settemp >= 200 Then
 Settemp = 201
 
' (-55 degrees)
 
' limt exceeded
 
End If
 
End If
'-----------------
End If
If Sw_set_disp = 0 Then
 Sec_count = 0
End If
'-----------------
Gosub Dispset
Wend
Stop Timer0
End If
' - - - - - - - - - - -0+++++++++++++
' -55 -54 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 ...125
'201 202 253 254 255 0 1 2 3 ...125
' check if real temperature is higher than set value
' add 55 to both sides to avoid negative errors for
Comparison
' byte variable does not support (-) values
Comp_temp = Tempdegree + 55
Comp_set = Settemp + 55
''''If Tempdegree >= Settemp Then
If Comp_temp >= Comp_set Then
 Relay_out = 1
 
'relay on
Else
 Relay_out = 0
 
'relay off
End If
Goto Begin
' -==-=-=-=-=-=-=- subroutines below-----
Disptemp:
Disp_temp = Tempdegree
Rem display real temperature
' display on 7 seg
P3.4 = 0
P3.5 = 0
' - - - - - - - - - - -0+++++++++++++
' -55 -54 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 ...125
'201 202 253 254 255 0 1 2 3 ...125
If Tempdegree >= 100 Then
 
If Tempdegree <= 125 Then
 Disp_temp = Tempdegree - 100
 
P3.4 = 1
 
' switch on hundred segment b/c
 
End If
End If
If Tempdegree >= 201 Then
 Disp_temp = 256 - Tempdegree
 
P3.5 = 1
 
' switch on minus [-] segment g
End If
Call Fn7seg(disp_temp)
Return
'--------------------------------
Dispset:
Rem display preset temperature
Set_disp_temp = Settemp
P3.4 = 0
P3.5 = 0
' - - - - - - - - - - -0+++++++++++++
' -55 -54 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 ...125
'201 202 253 254 255 0 1 2 3 ...125
If Settemp >= 100 Then
 
If Settemp <= 125 Then
 Set_disp_temp = Settemp - 100
 
P3.4 = 1
 
' switch on hundred segment b/c
 
End If
End If
If Settemp >= 200 Then
 Set_disp_temp = 256 - Settemp
 
P3.5 = 1
 
' switch on minus [-] segment g
End If
Set_mode = 1
Call Fn7seg(set_disp_temp)
Waitms 50
Return
'=-=-=-=-=-= function below---- - -- -
Sub Fn7seg(_i As Byte)
Dim _ans As Byte
' display on two 7 seg
_ans =
Makebcd(_i)
Display_port = _ans
If Set_mode = 1 Then
 
' if in set mode make display flicker
 Display_port = 255
 
' blankout the display
 
Waitms 10
 
' turn it on again
 Display_port = _ans
 
Waitms 10
End If
End Sub
' interrupt subroutine -----------------
Timer_0_overflow_int:
' program comes here 4000 times a sec
' with a 12mhz xtal
Incr Clock_word
If Clock_word > 4000 Then
 Clock_word = 0
 
Incr Sec_count
End If
Return
End
' prog size = 914 bytes
' end of program